For months, investors have been wondering when the Federal Reserve (Fed) might begin to “normalize” its policies, which will eventually lead to higher interest rates. Last week, a better-than-expected unemployment report – showing a gain of almost one million jobs – sparked speculation about whether we’ve arrived at that point. It’s difficult to know.
When the pandemic began, the Fed adopted policies that stimulated growth. It cut short-term interest rates to zero and began buying Treasuries and agency mortgage-backed securities to keep long-term rates low. These practices make borrowing less expensive for businesses and individuals, according to the Brookings Institute. That’s important in economically challenging times.
In late July, the Fed said it would continue to keep rates low and buy bonds until it saw “substantial further progress toward maximum employment and price stability [inflation] goals.”
The Fed may have already achieved its inflation goal. Its favorite inflation gauge is called the Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE), excluding food and energy. It’s a statistic that reflects how much Americans are paying for goods and services. In June, the Bureau of Economic Analysis reported that PCE was up 3.5 percent year-over-year. That’s well above the Fed’s two percent inflation target; however, the Fed’s new policy is to overshoot its target before raising rates.
If July’s employment numbers satisfy the Fed’s expectations for progress on jobs, the Fed may begin the process of normalizing monetary policy. The first step would be to purchase fewer bonds, a practice known as tapering. “Many market watchers are looking for [Fed Chair] Powell to discuss tapering at the central bank’s big policy meeting at Jackson Hole, Wyo. this month,” reported Randall Forsyth of Barron’s.
Major U.S. stock indices finished the week higher and so did the yield on 10-year U.S. Treasuries.
WHAT’S MAKING US MORE PRODUCTIVE? While the United States has not yet recovered all the jobs lost during the pandemic – 22 million jobs were lost and 16.6 million have returned – productivity is higher than it was when more people were employed. The Economist reported:
“Though output reached a new high in the second quarter, employment remained more than 4 percent below its pre-pandemic level. At present, America is producing more output than it managed just a year and a half ago, with roughly 6 [million] fewer workers.”
Higher productivity undoubtedly reflects the ingenuity of American businesses to adapt. The pandemic forced companies to find new ways to remain productive. In response, many adopted new technologies, implemented new patterns for working remotely and changed their business models.
However, not all companies have experienced gains in productivity, Eric Garton and Michael Mankins reported in the Harvard Business Review. The top 25 percent of companies that proved to be the best at managing time, talent, and energy were 40 percent more productive than companies in the lower quartiles. (The productivity levels of companies in the lower quartiles were averaged to make the comparison.)
Not all sectors of the economy are equally productive either. “The surge in output per worker also reflects the changing mix of the workforce. Employment in the leisure and hospitality industries, where productivity tends to be low, remains about 10 percent below the pre-pandemic level, compared to a 3 percent shortfall in the higher-productivity manufacturing sector,” noted The Economist. As less productive sectors recover, output may return to previous levels.
In the meantime, some employees have been wondering whether it’s necessary to return to the workplace when their productivity has remained high working remotely. In an early July survey conducted by The Conference Board, a majority (56 percent) of lower-level employees questioned whether returning to the workplace was wise, but just 18 percent of chief executive officers shared the concern.
Weekly Focus – Think About It
“Whenever you are asked if you can do a job, tell 'em, 'Certainly I can!' Then get busy and find out how to do it.”
—Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States
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